The genetics of blood pressure
Blood delivers nutrients and oxygen to all parts of your body. High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels at higher than normal pressures. A high force of blood flow can damage and weaken your blood vessels. Over time, hypertension can harm different organs, including the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes.
To learn more about how genes might affect our blood pressure, 3 international research teams that included NIH researchers analyzed hundreds of thousands of people’s genomes to look for genetic variations associated with blood pressure regulation. The research was funded by NIH’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute on Aging (NIA), and National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), among many others. Results were published online on September 12, 2016 in Nature Genetics.
The first study analyzed Cardio-Metabochip microarray data from 74 studies that included over 342,000 people of European ancestry. Using these data, the researchers identified 66 blood-pressure associated regions of the genome (loci), 17 of which were previously unknown. Analyses suggested that many of the newly identified loci may play a role within cells lining blood vessels in controlling blood pressure. There was no enrichment of a single predominant genetic pathway in the data, reflecting the complexity of blood pressure influences. The group found comparable results in a group of more than 64,000 people of South Asian, East Asian, and African descent.
The second research group performed a genome-wide analysis of more than 327,000 people. Their meta-analysis of Human Exome BeadChip gene array (Exome Chip) data revealed 31 new blood pressure-associated loci and confirmed 39 that had been previously identified. These loci were strongly linked to genetic risk of heart disease and heart attack.
A third team led by United Kingdom-based researchers used Exome Chip data to screen nearly 350,000 people. Their meta-analysis identified 30 new blood pressure-associated regions of the genome. Taken together, these 3 studies expand our understanding of the genetic components of blood pressure by doubling the number of reported blood pressure genes. They also highlight potential new targets for treating hypertension. Read More
Depression screening and treatment in adults
Depression is a serious and common mood disorder. Signs and symptoms include feelings of hopelessness or pessimism; irritability; decreased energy or fatigue; loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities; difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions; and feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness.
Major depression is typically treated with medications, psychotherapy, or a combination. Although antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed class of medications in the U.S., some studies have found that many adults with depression don’t receive treatment.
A team led by Dr. Mark Olfson of Columbia University Medical Center set out to assess how depression is treated in adults in the U.S. The study was funded in part by NIH’s National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Results appeared online on August 29, 2016, in JAMA Internal Medicine.
The researchers analyzed data from more than 46,000 adults, age 18 and older, who took part in a survey conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research in 2012-2013. The survey included a questionnaire to screen for depression, as well as questions regarding psychological distress and depression treatment. Read More